Gjergj Frasheri, Archaeological studies in the area of the station “Heumarkt/Pipinstraße” in Cologne. Report on the archaeological work during the construction of the North-South urban rail line, 2004-2009 (Cologne, 2012).
Hardcover; Size: 21.0 x 29,7 cm (DIN A4)
191 pages with 280 illustrations, 51 tables with 345 illustrations
Language: German with detailed English summars
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During the construction of the Nord-Süd-Stadtbahn Köln from 2004 until 2009 an intensive archaeological research has been conducted in the area of the station ‘Heumarkt/Pipinstraße’ by the company Stadt- und Landschaftsarchäologie (SuLA) under the project management of G. Frasheri.
The remains of a Late Iron Age/early imperial humous layer (369) indicated the earliest settlement in the area of the eastern terrace slope. At the centre as well as in the western part of the area a large number of shallow pits and small ditches indirectly indicated a settlement, e.g. houses or workshops, in this area since they contained objects from the 1st century AD.
Remains of buildings originating from the first half of the 1st century AD could have only been found in places. Since the second half of the 1st century AD two areas could significantly be distinguished due to their urban development: the eastern area, extending from the Roman city walls to the foundation 228/280, belonged to the religious centre of the colony. The Roman features of the western area showed a completely different character. The remains of smaller buildings along with associated channels, pits and ditches clearly indicated a use of the terrain as a private residential as well as a business area.
At the eastern edge of the excavation area a 6.5 m long section of the Roman city wall with remains of a rectangular tower (331) as well as a 45 m long section of the so called terrace wall at the eastern edge of insula J7 - built in the early stage of the Roman colony to level the slopy terrain - could have been investigated. West to the terrace wall remains of solid foundations of a portico appeared, proceeding in two rows around insulae J7 up to the terrace wall (probably the Roman forum). At the Kleine Sandkaul and at the northern edge of the Augustinergasse, one of the three large, west-east passing main-collectors of the Roman city could have been documented.
Within the south-western, the western and the central area of the excavation site several remains of smaller Roman houses and related water channels, sewers or rubbish pits have been found. These houses belonged to a residential area, which extended over the insulae H7/H8 to the west of the representative large buildings.
At the end of the 3rd or the beginning of the 4th century AD a large unroofed circular building was erected, located symmetrically between the northern and southern boundaries of the portico. Due to its size and the central position within the portico it certainly constituted an important, public building.
Around the northernmost section of the Roman terrace wall (367) remains of one resp. more post-Roman buildings have been found. Due to the material, the construction technique as well as the stratigraphic position the construction period could have been narrowed down to Merovingian or Carolingian times. At the western part of the examination area remains of a larger, mediaeval building (overall size: 9.5 x 7.85 m) have been uncovered, which have been overbuilt by the foundations of the Augustiner-Eremiten-Kloster.
Besides the constructional features numerous pits and masoned shafts appeared within the whole examination area, indicating intensive mediaeval and late-mediaeval activities in this area. In addition to Roman ceramics the backfills of the oldest features contained as well sherds of the 9th/10th century and of the 11th/12th to the 15th century. Their presence indirectly suggested the existence of near residential houses or workshops, where the pits and shafts served for different purposes.
During the Late Middle Ages significant infrastructural changes happened at the examined area. The previous buildings have been demolished and the comparatively small-sized, deep pits and shafts, suggesting a technical use of the area, have finally been backfilled at this time. Large-scaled and deep extraction pits have instead been established probably already in the late 14th century. At the western part of the examination area, two large building complexes of the Augustiner-Eremiten-Kloster have been erected and the street Kleine Sandkaul has first been established at this time.
During the 17th/18th century numerous new, large buildings have been erected in place of the renaissance buildings. Some of these buildings probably also belonged to the monastery complex and has likewise still been used after the monasteries’ closure, until the first half of the 20th century. In the area of the modern Herrmann-Joseph-Platz the basements and foundations of two large, adjoining modern buildings 223 and 224 have been examined. Concerning archaeological feature the buildings have been erected at the end of the 18th century, but more probably during the first half of the 19th century. Due to written records the abbesses building of St. Maria im Kapitol of the 18th century and the west wing of the cloister have been located at this area. After the secularization of the convent in the year 1802 the structure of the urban development has been reorganized. All of the examined cellars have finally been abandoned and backfilled after the destructions of the Second World War.
Remains of buildings originating from the first half of the 1st century AD could have only been found in places. Since the second half of the 1st century AD two areas could significantly be distinguished due to their urban development: the eastern area, extending from the Roman city walls to the foundation 228/280, belonged to the religious centre of the colony. The Roman features of the western area showed a completely different character. The remains of smaller buildings along with associated channels, pits and ditches clearly indicated a use of the terrain as a private residential as well as a business area
Due to written records the existence of the so-called Zivilcasino, a 19th century building at the western part of the examination area, has already been known before the beginning of the examination. According to the archaeological feature the Zivilcasino has been a two-winged building complex, whose facade walls nearly completely consisted of bricks. The Casino has been dedicated at the 26th December 1831 and 1940 been demolished during the construction of the east-west connection from the Rudolphplatz to the Heumarkt.